Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there are differences in imaging findings between pancreatic epidermoid cyst (EDC) without a solid component (residual splenic tissue) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of histologically proven EDC (eight cases) and MCN (20 cases). CT and MRI findings were compared on the following imaging findings: the shape of the cystic lesions and the presence or absence of septum, calcification, and high-intensity fluid on T1- and diffusion-weighted images (b factor = 1000). The degree of contact with the pancreatic tail was compared between the EDCs and six of the MCNs at the edge of the pancreatic tail. Results: The EDCs were round (n = 3) or oval (n = 5), while the MCNs consisted of three round, five oval, six pear-like, and six multilobulated lesions (P < 0.05). Septum was present in 4 of 8 (50%) EDCs and 19 of 20 (95%) MCNs (P < 0.05). The presence of calcification (2 of 8 [25%] EDCs vs. 8 of 20 [40%] MCNs), high-intensity fluid on T1-weighted images (2 of 7 [29%] EDCs vs. 5 of 20 [25%] MCNs), and high-intensity fluid on diffusion-weighted images (5 of 7 [71%] EDCs vs. 5 of 20 [25%] MCNs) were not significantly different. The degree of contact with the pancreatic parenchyma was similar between the two types of lesions. Conclusion: Although the imaging findings for EDC without a solid component and MCN overlap, a pear-like or multilobulated shape may favor a diagnosis of MCN.
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