Repeat destabilisation is variously associated with human disease. In neoplastic diseases, microsatellite instability (MSI) has been regarded as simply reflecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. However, several discrepancies have been pointed out. Firstly, the MSI+ phenotype is not uniform in human neoplasms. Established classification utilises the frequency of microsatellite changes, i.e. MSI-H (high) and -L (low), the former regarded as an authentic MMR-defective phenotype. In addition, we have observed the qualitatively distinct modes of MSI, i.e. Type A and Type B. One discrepancy we previously pointed out is that tumours occurring in MMR gene knockout mice exhibited not drastic microsatellite changes typical in MSI-H tumours (i.e. Type B mode) but minor and more subtle alterations (i.e. Type A mode). In the present study, MSH2 mutations reported in Lynch syndrome (LS) kindred have been introduced into HeLa cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The established mutant clones clearly exhibited MMR-defective phenotypes with alkylating agent-tolerance and elevated mutation frequencies. Nevertheless, microsatellites were not markedly destabilised as in MSI-H tumours occurring in LS patients, and all the observed alterations were uniformly Type A, which confirms the results in mice. Our findings suggest added complexities to the molecular mechanisms underlying repeat destabilisation in human genome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology