Probing the dynamics of nanobubbles is essential to understand their longevity and behavior. Importantly, such an observation requires tools and techniques having high temporal resolutions to capture the intrinsic characteristics of the nanobubbles. In this work, we have used thein situliquid-phase electron microscopy (LPEM) technique to gain insights into nanobubbles’ behavior and their interfacial dynamics. Interestingly, we could observe a freely growing-shrinking nanobubble and a pinned nanobubble under the same experimental conditions, suggesting the possibility of multiple nanobubble stabilization theories and pathways. Remarkably, the study reveals that a freely growing-shrinking nanobubble induces anisotropic depinning in the three-phase contact line of a strongly pinned neighboring nanobubble. The anisotropic depinning is attributed to the differential local gas saturation levels, depending on the relative positioning of the freely growing-shrinking nanobubble. Furthermore, we also observed a unique pull-push phenomenon exhibited by the nanobubble's interfaces, which is attributed to the van der Waals interactions and the electric double layer collectively. The role of the electric double layer in suppressing and delaying the merging is also highlighted in this study. The present work aims to reveal the role of locally varying gas saturation in the depinning of nanobubbles, their longevity due to the electric double layer, and the consequent coalescence, which is crucial to understand the behavior of the nanobubbles. Our findings will essentially contribute to the understanding of these novel nanoscale gaseous domains and their dynamics.
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