Objective Heart failure following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a serious complication that requires early detection; however, the clinical implications of early-onset cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) following allo-HSCT remain unclear. We investigated the determinants and prognostic impact of early-onset CTRCD in allo-HSCT recipients. Methods The records of 136 patients with haematological malignancies who underwent allo-HSCT at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. Early-onset CTRCD was defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≥10% and an LVEF of ≤53% within 100 days after HSCT. Results Early-onset CTRCD was diagnosed in 23 out of 136 included patients (17%), and the median duration from HSCT to CTRCD diagnosis was 24 (9-35) days. Patients were followed up for 347 (132-1268) days. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, cumulative doxorubicin dosage (each 10 mg/m 2) and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD/grade) were independent indicators of early-onset CTRCD (OR (95% CI) 1.04 (1.00 to 1.07); p=0.032; OR (95% CI) 1.87 (1.19 to 2.95), p=0.004, respectively). The overall and primary disease death rates were significantly higher in allo-HSCT recipients with early-onset CTRCD than in those without early-onset CTRCD (HR (95% CI) 1.98 (1.11 to 3.52), p=0.016; HR (95% CI) 2.96 (1.40 to 6.29), p=0.005, respectively), independent of primary disease type, remission status and transplantation type. Conclusions Severe acute GVHD and higher cumulative anthracycline are two significant determinants of early-onset CTRCD. Early-onset CTRCD following allo-HSCT regulates survival in patients with haematological malignancies.
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