Objective. Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Early progression of atherosclerosis has been reported in patients with RA. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorders caused by heterozygous NLRP3 gene mutations. Chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome is the most severe form of CAPS and patients display early onset of rash, fever, uveitis and joint manifestations. However, there has been no previous report on atherosclerosis in patients with CAPS. The objective of this study is to assess the development of atherosclerosis in patients with CINCA syndrome. Methods. Intima–media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries, stiffness parameter β, ankle brachial index (ABI) and pressure wave velocity (PWV) were evaluated by ultrasonography in 3 patients with CINCA syndrome [mean age 9.0 years (S.D. 5.3)] and 19 age-matched healthy controls [9.3 years (S.D. 4.3)]. Results. The levels of carotid IMT, stiffness parameter β and PWV in CINCA syndrome patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls [0.51 mm (S.D. 0.05) vs 0.44 (0.04), P = 0.0021; 6.1 (S.D. 1.7) vs 3.9 (1.0), P = 0.0018; 1203 cm/s (S.D. 328) vs 855 (114), P = 0.017, respectively]. Conclusion. Patients with CINCA syndrome showed signs of atherosclerosis from their early childhood. The results of this study emphasize the importance of chronic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. Further analysis on atherosclerosis in young patients with CINCA syndrome may provide more insights into the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes