Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the status and the cost of hospital patient safety systems. Methods: We conducted a national questionnaire survey of all the 1039 teaching hospitals in Japan. The study was constructed to evaluate the costs of the systems for patient safety focused on staff assignment, meetings and conferences, internal audit, staff education and training, incident reporting, infection surveillance, infectious disposal, management of medication use, clinical engineering, and patient counseling. Results: The status to maintain patient safety systems might be at least as decent. The mean estimated total cost of systems for patient safety was US$ 20,449 (95% confidence interval [CI], 19,632-21,266) per 100 bed-months or US$ 8.52 (95% CI, 8.18-8.86) per inpatient-day. The ratio of costs to revenue was 1.68% (95% CI, 1.61-1.75). The annual necessary costs occurring in hospitals where the costs of patient safety were under the average level across all the 1032 teaching hospitals in Japan was US$ 259.7 million. Conclusions: Our results show that hospital-wide activities for patient safety pose significant costs to hospitals and national healthcare systems. Our data may provide financial information for designing and improving patient safety systems.
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