The intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is widely used to control the intravesical recurrence of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This study aimed to reveal the effects of zygosity on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and individual HLA genotypes on intravesical recurrence after intravesical BCG therapy for NMIBC. This study included Japanese patients who had received intravesical BCG for NMIBC. HLA genotyping of HLA-A, B, C, and DRB1 was performed. The effect of HLA zygosity and HLA genotype on intravesical recurrence was evaluated. Among 195 patients, those homozygous for the HLA-B supertype were more likely than those heterozygous for the HLA-B supertype to experience intravesical recurrence by univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.87, 1.14–3.05, P = 0.012) and multivariate analysis (HR, 95% CI; 2.26, 1.02–5.01, P = 0.045). Patients with B07 or B44 had a decreased risk of intravesical recurrence by univariate analysis (HR, 95% CI; 0.43, 0.24–0.78, P = 0.0056) and multivariate analysis (HR, 95% CI; 0.36, 0.16–0.82, P = 0.016). This study suggests the importance of the diversity and specificity of HLA-B loci in the antitumor effect of BCG immunotherapy for NMIBC. These findings may contribute to the delineation of risk strata for BCG therapy and improve the medical management of NMIBC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes