Background Prior studies have shown the effectiveness of both endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage (CDH) but have been small and conducted at single centers. Therefore, we investigated which was the more effective and safe treatment in a multicenter long-term cohort study. Methods We reviewed data for 1679 patients with CDH who were treated with EBL (n=638) or clipping (n=1041) between January 2010 and December 2019at 49 hospitals across Japan (CODE BLUE-J study). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare outcomes between the two treatments. Results In multivariate analysis, EBL was independently associated with reduced risk of early rebleeding (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.46; P <0.001) and late rebleeding (adjusted OR 0.62; P <0.001) compared with clipping. These significantly lower rebleeding rates with EBL were evident regardless of active bleeding or early colonoscopy. No significant differences were found between the treatments in the rates of initial hemostasis or mortality. Compared with clipping, EBL independently reduced the risk of needing interventional radiology (adjusted OR 0.37; P =0.006) and prolonged length of hospital stay (adjusted OR 0.35; P <0.001), but not need for surgery. Diverticulitis developed in one patient (0.16%) following EBL and two patients (0.19%) following clipping. Perforation occurred in two patients (0.31%) following EBL and none following clipping. Conclusions Analysis of our large endoscopy dataset suggests that EBL is an effective and safe endoscopic therapy for CDH, offering the advantages of lower early and late rebleeding rates, reduced need for interventional radiology, and shorter length of hospital stay.
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