To determine the effects of bacteria pollution associated with a strong typhoon event and to assess the restoration of the normal bacterial flora, we used conventional filtration methods and nextgeneration sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to analyze the transition of fecal and total bacterial counts in water and core sand samples collected from a recreational beach. Immediately after the typhoon event, Escherichia coli counts increased to 82 CFU/100 g in the surface beach sand. E. coli was detected through the surface to sand 85-cm deep at the land side point (10-m land side from the high-water line). However, E. coli disappeared within a month from the land side point. The composition of the bacterial flora in the beach sand at the land point was directly influenced by the typhoon event. Pseudomonas was the most prevalent genus throughout the sand layers (0–102-cm deep) during the typhoon event. After 3 months, the population of Pseudomonas significantly decreased, and the predominant genus in the surface layer was Kaistobacter, although Pseudomonas was the major genus in the 17- to 85-cm layer. When the beach conditions stabilized, the number of pollutant Pseudomonas among the 10 most abundant genera decreased to lower than the limit of detection. The bacterial population of the sand was subsequently restored to the most populous pre-event orders at the land point. A land-side beach, where users directly contact the sand, was significantly affected by bacterial pollution caused by a strong typhoon event. We show here that the normal bacterial flora of the surface sand was restored within 1 month.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal