We elucidated the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive capacity (fecundity and fertility) and estrogenic response of adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and studied the transgenerational effects (F1 generation growth and sex) of this agent on the F1 offspring. Eight mating pairs of medaka were exposed to BPA for three weeks at a measured concentration of 837, 1,720, or 3,120 μg/L. Throughout the exposure period, we observed no reduction of fecundity and fertility in any treatment group and no reduction in survival and growth or any imbalance of the sex ratio of the offspring. However, histologic examination revealed testis-ova in 13% of the males in the 837-μg/L treatment group, 86% of those in the 1,720-μg/L group, and 50% of those that received 3,120 μg BPA/L. In addition, concentrations of hepatic vitellogenin were increased significantly in males treated with BPA at 3,120 μg/L (p = 0.0148). These results suggest that BPA is a weakly estrogenic compound that has the potential to alter sexual development and induce vitellogenin in male medaka but that has no adverse effect on reproductive success.
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