Purpose: This study aims to clarify the relationship between changes in skeletal muscle mass during treatment and prognosis of pediatric malignant solid tumors. Methods: Patients with pediatric malignant solid tumors who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital from 2007 to 2017 were divided into two groups: the progression-free survival (PFS) group and the relapse/death (R/D) group; the psoas major muscle volume (PMV) was then compared. We also measured the PMV and psoas muscle area (PMA) of pediatric patients with no complications who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis (control) and compared the values with those of patients with malignant tumors. Results: No significant differences were observed in the PMV and PMA between patients with appendicitis and those with malignant tumors. Significant differences were found in the rate of change in PMV between the PFS (1.424) and R/D groups (1.071) (P = 0.0024). When the cut-off value of the rate of change in the PMV was 1.20, patients whose rate of change in PMV was ≥ 1.20 had longer PFS (P = 0.0231) and overall survival (P = 0.0229) than those whose rate of change was < 1.20. Conclusion: Pediatric patients with malignant solid tumors and increased skeletal muscle mass during treatment have a good prognosis.
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