Humanity faces an increasing possibility that unusual and extreme natural disasters will increase, compounded with climate change, including global warming. These compound events are designated as compounded natural hazards in this study. A methodology must be developed for predicting what events and risks will confront future societies, to propose countermeasures and adaptation strategies against these events, and to evaluate the influences of compound disasters on infrastructure which is particularly situated near coasts and rivers. Based on the above-stated background and demands, this study was undertaken with the intention of upgrading the methodology for estimating effects on infrastructure of compound events such as increased typhoon and rainfall severity caused by global warming occurring concurrently with a great earthquake in Japan. Such a methodology is expected to contribute to progress in the fields of natural disaster mitigation and land preservation, particularly benefiting coastal and river areas in Japan. Additionally in this study, risk and economic loss analyses for the possible occurrence of compound disasters for coastal infrastructure and foundations are produced for establishing environmental strategies at the governmental level. The authors further propose adaptation strategies and techniques as countermeasures against these events.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes