Whole crop rice (WCR) is expected to establish a cultivation method using manure produced from animal wastes. Meanwhile, application methods of fertilizer and manure in the WCR cultivation are affected by availability of manure, available time for its application, and field drainage, and low market price of WCR. This raises concerns about soil fertility deterioration and yield reduction in the WCR cultivation. The objectives of this study were to investigate how different application methods of fertilizer and manure affected soil chemical properties and yield in the WCR cultivation. Field surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at 10 fields cultivated by five different farmers in the Itoshima region, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. The surveyed fields included two application methods of manure (M) alone and chemical fertilizer (CF) alone. Clay plus silt content was significantly correlated with total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and exchangeable potassium (Exch. K), which indicated that soil texture partly contributed to the variations of these soil chemical properties. Meanwhile, clear gaps of TN, TP, Exch. K, K saturation degree, and available N between CF and M at around 40% of clay plus silt content strongly suggested that manure application contributed to increases in the soil chemical properties. Yearly differences of available N had relatively large negative values in CF fields. This result suggested a possible decrease in mineralizable part of soil TN in the WCR cultivation with CF alone, which needs to be clarified through long-term study. Significant relationships between potential N supply and straw weight (r = 0.698, p < 0.05 for 2013; r = 0.873, p < 0.01 for 2014) or yield of whole crop (r = 0.852, p < 0.01 for 2014) indicated that N mineralized from soil, which was enhanced by manure application, increased straw weight, resulting in an increase in yield of whole crop. However, excessive amounts of manure applied in surveyed fields can cause groundwater and surface water pollution. Thus, nutrient balances in a paddy field need to be analyzed further to determine an appropriate application amount of manure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Soil Science
- Plant Science