In this study, we investigated the effects of feeding a moderate- or high-energy close-up diet to close-up cows on response of newborn calves to intravenously (i.v.) injected glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Newborn Holstein heifer calves (n = 37) from cows fed with a moderate-energy [M, 1.54 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM) NEl; 14% starch; n = 17] or high-energy (H, 1.63 Mcal/kg of DM NEl; 26% starch; n = 20) diet in the last 28 d prepartum were assigned to one of two treatment groups, which were i.v. injected with saline (MC and HC, n = 9 and 10, respectively) or GLP-1 solution at 1.0 μg/kg BW (MG and HG, n = 8 and 10, respectively) immediately after milk replacer (MR; 26% CP, 16% fat) feeding. Blood samples were obtained through a jugular vein catheter at −10, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to MR feeding at 2, 10, and 20 d after birth, and plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were measured. Plasma GLP-1 concentration tended to increase starting from 30 min after MR feeding in the MC relative to the HC group at 10 (0.77 ng/mL vs 0.69 ng/mL for MC and HC, respectively; P = 0.10) and 20 d after birth (0.47 ng/mL vs 0.35 ng/mL for MC and HC, respectively; P = 0.07). Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after MR feeding did not differ between MC and HC groups at 2 and 20 d after birth but were higher (P < 0.05) in MC (158 mg/dL and 3.64 ng/mL for glucose and insulin, respectively) than in HC (143 mg/dL and 2.46 ng/mL for glucose and insulin, respectively) calves at 10 d after birth. The elevation in plasma glucose concentration after MR feeding was suppressed by direct glucose-lowering action of i.v. injected GLP-1 at 2, 10, and 20 d after birth in M and H calves; this direct glucose-lowering action by GLP-1 was greater (P < 0.05) for H than for M calves at 20 d after birth. These results indicate that feeding a high-energy close-up diet to cows affects glucose status in their female offspring via suppression of postprandial plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and insulin as well as the alteration in the glucose-lowering action of GLP-1 after feeding depending on the day after birth.
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