This study evaluated the effects of condensed barley distillers soluble (CBDS) on growth rate, rumen fermentation, plasma metabolite, and myofiber properties, and gene expression related to metabolism in the skeletal muscles of Japanese Black calves, compared with soybean meal and corn. Twenty-four calves were divided into four groups: fed 5% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (low CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (control); and fed 15% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (high CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (high soy). The daily gain was larger in the low (p = 0.08) and high (p < 0.05) CBDS groups compared with the control group. In the CBDS-fed groups, plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were significantly higher at 6 months of age (p < 0.05), the percentage of type I myofibers was significantly lower and their diameters were significantly larger at 9 months of age (p < 0.05), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b mRNA expression was significantly lower (p < 0.05) and citrate synthase mRNA expression tended to be lower (low; p = 0.06, high; p = 0.05) compared with control group. Thus, feeding CBDS promotes growth and leads to animals with more glycolytic and less oxidative muscle metabolism.
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