Titania-based films on selective laser melted Ti13Zr13Nb have been formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) at different process parameters (voltage, current, processing time) in order to evaluate the impact of MAO process parameters in calcium and phosphate (Ca + P) containing electrolyte on surface characteristic, early-stage bioactivity, nanomechanical properties, and adhesion between the oxide coatings and substrate. The surface topography, surface roughness, pore diameter, elemental composition, crystal structure, surface wettability, and the early stage-bioactivity in Hank's solution were evaluated for all coatings. Hardness, maximum indent depth, Young's modulus, and Ecoating/Esubstrate, H/E, H3/E2 ratios were determined in the case of nanomechanical evaluation while the MAO coating adhesion properties were estimated by the scratch test. The study indicated that the most important parameter of MAO process influencing the coating characteristic is voltage. Due to the good ratio of structural and nanomechanical properties of the coatings, the optimal conditions of MAO process were found at 300 V during 15 min, at 32 mA or 50 mA of current, which resulted in the predictable structure, high Ca/P ratio, high hydrophilicity, the highest demonstrated early-stage bioactivity, better nanomechanical properties, the elastic modulus and hardness well close to the values characteristic for bones, as compared to specimens treated at a lower voltage (200 V) and uncoated substrate, as well as a higher critical load of adhesion and total delamination.
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