Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis

Kunio Kaiho, Ryosuke Saito, Kosuke Ito, Takashi Miyaji, Raman Biswas, Li Tian, Hiroyoshi Sano, Zhiqiang Shi, Satoshi Takahashi, Jinnan Tong, Lei Liang, Masahiro Oba, Fumiko W. Nara, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Zhong Qiang Chen

研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿記事

8 引用 (Scopus)

抄録

The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth's history occurred during the Permian–Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to the surface water, a decrease in pH, and hypercapnia have been proposed as direct causes of the marine crisis. For the first-phase extinction, we here add a causal mechanism beginning from massive soil and rock erosion and leading to algal blooms, release of toxic components, asphyxiation, and oxygen-depleted nearshore bottom water that created environmental stress for nearshore marine animals. For the second-phase extinction, we show that a soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event did not occur, but culmination of anoxia–euxinia in intermediate waters did occur, spanning the second-phase extinction. We investigated sedimentary organic molecules, and the results indicated a peak of a massive soil erosion proxy followed by peaks of marine productivity proxy. Anoxic proxies of surface sediments and water occurred in the shallow nearshore sea at the eastern and western margins of the Paleotethys at the first-phase extinction horizon, but not at the second-phase extinction horizon. Our reconstruction of ocean redox structure at low latitudes indicates that a gradual increase in temperature spanning the two extinctions could have induced a gradual change from a well-mixed oxic to a stratified euxinic ocean beginning immediately prior to the first-phase extinction, followed by culmination of anoxia in nearshore surface waters and of anoxia and euxinia in the shallow-intermediate waters at the second-phase extinction over a period of approximately one million years or more. Enhanced global warming, ocean acidification, and hypercapnia could have caused the second-phase extinction approximately 60 kyr after the first-phase extinction. The causes of the first-phase extinction were not only those environmental stresses but also environmental stresses caused by the soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event.

元の言語英語
記事番号e00137
ジャーナルHeliyon
2
発行部数8
DOI
出版物ステータス出版済み - 1 1 2016

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soil erosion
extinction
ocean
intermediate water
environmental stress
algal bloom
anoxia
surface water
erosion
effect
rock
soil
mass extinction
bottom water
biota
global warming
Permian
shallow water
Triassic
deep water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

これを引用

Kaiho, K., Saito, R., Ito, K., Miyaji, T., Biswas, R., Tian, L., ... Chen, Z. Q. (2016). Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis. Heliyon, 2(8), [e00137]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00137

Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis. / Kaiho, Kunio; Saito, Ryosuke; Ito, Kosuke; Miyaji, Takashi; Biswas, Raman; Tian, Li; Sano, Hiroyoshi; Shi, Zhiqiang; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tong, Jinnan; Liang, Lei; Oba, Masahiro; Nara, Fumiko W.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Chen, Zhong Qiang.

:: Heliyon, 巻 2, 番号 8, e00137, 01.01.2016.

研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿記事

Kaiho, K, Saito, R, Ito, K, Miyaji, T, Biswas, R, Tian, L, Sano, H, Shi, Z, Takahashi, S, Tong, J, Liang, L, Oba, M, Nara, FW, Tsuchiya, N & Chen, ZQ 2016, 'Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis', Heliyon, 巻. 2, 番号 8, e00137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00137
Kaiho, Kunio ; Saito, Ryosuke ; Ito, Kosuke ; Miyaji, Takashi ; Biswas, Raman ; Tian, Li ; Sano, Hiroyoshi ; Shi, Zhiqiang ; Takahashi, Satoshi ; Tong, Jinnan ; Liang, Lei ; Oba, Masahiro ; Nara, Fumiko W. ; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi ; Chen, Zhong Qiang. / Effects of soil erosion and anoxic–euxinic ocean in the Permian–Triassic marine crisis. :: Heliyon. 2016 ; 巻 2, 番号 8.
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abstract = "The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth's history occurred during the Permian–Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to the surface water, a decrease in pH, and hypercapnia have been proposed as direct causes of the marine crisis. For the first-phase extinction, we here add a causal mechanism beginning from massive soil and rock erosion and leading to algal blooms, release of toxic components, asphyxiation, and oxygen-depleted nearshore bottom water that created environmental stress for nearshore marine animals. For the second-phase extinction, we show that a soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event did not occur, but culmination of anoxia–euxinia in intermediate waters did occur, spanning the second-phase extinction. We investigated sedimentary organic molecules, and the results indicated a peak of a massive soil erosion proxy followed by peaks of marine productivity proxy. Anoxic proxies of surface sediments and water occurred in the shallow nearshore sea at the eastern and western margins of the Paleotethys at the first-phase extinction horizon, but not at the second-phase extinction horizon. Our reconstruction of ocean redox structure at low latitudes indicates that a gradual increase in temperature spanning the two extinctions could have induced a gradual change from a well-mixed oxic to a stratified euxinic ocean beginning immediately prior to the first-phase extinction, followed by culmination of anoxia in nearshore surface waters and of anoxia and euxinia in the shallow-intermediate waters at the second-phase extinction over a period of approximately one million years or more. Enhanced global warming, ocean acidification, and hypercapnia could have caused the second-phase extinction approximately 60 kyr after the first-phase extinction. The causes of the first-phase extinction were not only those environmental stresses but also environmental stresses caused by the soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event.",
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AU - Ito, Kosuke

AU - Miyaji, Takashi

AU - Biswas, Raman

AU - Tian, Li

AU - Sano, Hiroyoshi

AU - Shi, Zhiqiang

AU - Takahashi, Satoshi

AU - Tong, Jinnan

AU - Liang, Lei

AU - Oba, Masahiro

AU - Nara, Fumiko W.

AU - Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

AU - Chen, Zhong Qiang

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