In recent years, kisspeptin peptides, encoded by kiss genes have been used to manipulate reproductive processes in farmed animals, including fish. Our previous studies demonstrated that the chub mackerel brain expresses kiss1 and kiss2 and intramuscular injection of synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) but not Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) accelerates spermatogenesis in prepubertal male chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). In the present study, we evaluated their effects in prepubertal female chub mackerel. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of experimental fish did not show any significant changes. Condition factor (CF) values increased significantly in Kiss1-15 treated fish, in comparison with control and GnRH analogue (GnRHa) injected fish. Histologically, only perinucleolar oocytes were found in all experimental fish. However, Kiss and GnRHa treated fish showed a significant increase in the perinucleolar oocyte diameter, in comparison with the control fish. Gene expression analyses revealed decreased expression of gnrh1 in the telencephalon-preoptic region of the brain of Kiss2-12 and GnRHa injected fish, in comparison with control fish. In contrast, GnRHa injected fish exhibited higher levels of fshβ in the pituitary, with no changes in the levels of lhβ among different treatments. Levels of circulating sex steroids, testosterone, and estradiol-17β were significantly higher in Kiss1-15 injected fish, in comparison with control fish. These results indicate that synthetic kisspeptin peptides and GnRHa can induce oocyte growth in prepubertal female chub mackerel.
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