Aims/Introduction: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Several electronic databases were examined on 16 January 2021, including PubMed, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomized controlled trials were included to compare ACT with usual treatment for people with type 2 diabetes reported in any language. Primary outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin, self-care ability assessed by the summary of diabetes self-care activities and all adverse events. The secondary outcome measure was acceptance assessed by the acceptance and action diabetes questionnaire. Results: Of 678 publications initially identified, three trials were included in the meta-analysis. ACT resulted in a reduction in glycated hemoglobin (mean difference −0.62 points lower in the intervention group; 95% confidence interval −1.07 to −0.16; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). In addition, ACT increased the score of the summary of diabetes self-care activities (mean difference 8.48 points higher in the intervention group; 95% confidence interval 2.16–14.80; high-quality evidence). Adverse events were not measured in all trials. ACT increased scores of the acceptance and action diabetes questionnaire (mean difference 5.98 points higher in the intervention group; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–10.54; I2 = 43%; low-quality evidence). Conclusions: ACT might reduce glycated hemoglobin, and increase self-care ability and acceptance among people with type 2 diabetes.
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