Backgrounds: Enoxaparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, has become a routine thromboprophylaxis in general surgery. Study design: A retrospective cohort study was performed in 281 patients who underwent hepatic resections for liver cancers from 2011 to 2013. These patients were divided into two groups; an enoxaparin (-) group (n = 228) and an enoxaparin (+) group (n = 53). Short-term surgical results including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) were compared. Results: In the enoxaparin (+) group, the patients' age (65 vs. 69 years; p = 0.01) and BMI (22.9 vs. 24.4; p < 0.01) were significantly higher. According to the symptomatic VTE, symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in one patient (0.4%) in the enoxaparin (-) group, but the complication rate was not significantly different (p = 0.63). The complication rate of PVT was significantly lower in the enoxaparin (+) group (10 vs. 2%; p = 0.04). The independent risk factors for PVT were an operation time ≥ 300 minutes (Odds ratio 6.66) and non-treatment with enoxaparin (Odds ratio 2.49). Conclusions: Postoperative anticoagulant therapy with enoxaparin could prevent PVT in patients who underwent hepatic resection for liver cancers.
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