Nukacin D13E (D13E) is a variant of type-A(II) lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. D13E exhibited a twofold higher specific antimicrobial activity than nukacin ISK-1 against a number of Gram-positive bacteria. We previously reported the heterologous production of D13E in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 under the control of nisin-controlled gene expression system. In this study, we demonstrated enhanced production of D13E by the additional expression of immunity genes, nukFEG. The nukacin ISK-1 immunity, conferred by the ABC transporter complex, NukFEG, and the lantibiotic-binding protein, NukH, was not overwhelmed by D13E. The additional NukFEG resulted in a fourfold increase in the immunity level of the strain and a 5.2-fold increase in D13E production. The additional NukFEGH-expressing strain with the highest D13E immunity showed reduced level of production. Further improvement in D13E production was achieved by using pH-controlled batch fermentation.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes