A customized micro arc oxidation (MAO) treatment technique was developed to obtain desirable antibacterial properties on titanium surfaces. The two-step MAO treatment was applied to fabricate a specimen containing both Ag and Zn in its surface oxide layer. Surface analyses and metal-ion release tests were performed to evaluate the presence of Ag and Zn and the ion release behavior for simulating practical usage, respectively. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the specimens were also evaluated using gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria. The MAO-treated specimens containing both Ag and Zn showed excellent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, and the properties were sustained even after 28 days of immersion in physiological saline to simulate the living environment.
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