Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma following acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is extremely rare. We here describe a unique case involving a patient who developed Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during complete remission (CR) of AML. A 75-year-old Japanese man was initially diagnosed with AML with maturation (FAB M2), bearing chromosomal translocation t(3,4)(p25;q21). After intensive chemotherapy, bone marrow aspiration revealed normal karyotype, and he achieved CR. Six years and 4 months later, he was still in CR from AML, but developed DLBCL presenting in the terminal ileum. Cytogenetic analysis of the DLBCL cells showed the same translocation as the previous AML. The rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes of the two malignancies were examined using polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the rearrangement patterns were found to differ from each other. Our data thus suggest that, in the present case, the AML and DLBCL arose from a common progenitor cell, as indicated by the clonal abnormality t(3,4)(p25;q21), and that different immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements occurred during each course of clonal evolution.
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