This review outlines current topics on the surgical treatment of benign colorectal diseases, with a focus on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and diverticulitis. Treatment options for IBD and diverticulitis have evolved in the last few years as a result of medical advances in technology and new clinical trials. Therefore, treatment options and strategies need to be updated to provide optimal care for patients. The purpose of this review is to elucidate recent global trends and update the surgical treatment strategy for IBD and diverticulitis based on literature published in the past 2 years. Prevalence of IBD, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased over the last few decades. During this period, many new medical therapies were introduced for the treatment of IBD, including biological therapy, immunomodulators, and leukocyte apheresis therapy. As a result, new surgical strategies for IBD are required. In order to improve surgical outcomes in IBD patients, the influence of preoperative treatment on postoperative complications needs to be considered. The incidence of diverticulitis is also increasing with lifestyle changes and increasing numbers of older people. For diverticulitis with perforation and generalized peritonitis, surgery is the gold standard. Elective surgery after conservative treatment of diverticulitis is also an option because of high recurrence rates. With an increase in diverticulitis, systematic strategies are essential for an appropriate approach to diverticulitis, taking into account various factors, including the patient's background.
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