Photo-functionalization of titanium orthopedic/prosthetic implants using ultraviolet illumination is known to improve osteogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the influence of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-treated titanium surfaces on osteoblast cell adhesion, activity, and differentiation. Osteoblastic cells were cultured on titanium substrates treated with various VUV treatment conditions (0, 6.2, 18.7, and 37.4 J/cm2) and their behavior was evaluated. The results revealed that cell adhesion was increased whereas cell activity and differentiation ability were decreased upon cell culture on VUV-treated substrates. In particular, cell activity and differentiation ability were dramatically suppressed with 18.7 J/cm2 VUV irradiation. Within the limitations of this cell-based experiment, we clarified the VUV treatment conditions in which cell adhesion was improved but cell activity and differentiation ability were suppressed. These results indicate that VUV-treatment can be used to influence cell growth properties and can be used to accelerate or suppress cell differentiation on implant substrates.
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