Purpose: To determine whether lipiodol, which has low thermal conductivity, influences ice ball formation during cryoablation of a lipiodol-mixed-tissue phantom. Materials and Methods: Lipiodol-mixed-tissue phantoms were created by injecting lipiodol (4–6 ml) into the renal arteries of ex vivo porcine kidneys (lipiodol group). A cryoprobe (CryoHit™ Needle S) with a holder that was set with thermocouples at various positions around the cryoprobe was inserted. After freezing for 300 s, the followings were evaluated: ice ball size on CT, temperature distribution around the cryoprobe, and calculated distances at 0 °C and − 20 °C. Each variable was compared between lipiodol group (n = 6) those obtained in a control group without lipiodol injection (n = 6). Results: Mean ice ball diameter (width/length) on CT was 22.1 ± 2.3/22.9 ± 2.3 mm in the lipiodol group and 21.6 ± 0.7/22.2 ± 1.3 mm in the control group. Mean cryoprobe temperature was − 118 ± 3.0 °C in the lipiodol group and − 117 ± 2.6 °C in the control group. In both groups, temperature at the 3 mm thermocouple reached approximately − 50 °C and was < 0 °C within ~ 10 mm of the cryoprobe. Temperature of 0/− 20 °C occurred at a mean distance from the cryoprobe of 11.1 ± 0.5/6.9 ± 0.4 mm in the lipiodol group and 11.0 ± 0.2/6.9 ± 0.2 mm in the control group. There was no significant difference in any variable between the groups. Conclusion: The inclusion of lipiodol in a tissue phantom had no negative effects on ice ball formation that were related to thermal conductivity.
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