During their last phase of evolution, the pectiniform conodont elements manifested an evident trend of simplification and miniaturization. This phase started from the late Norian (Sevatian) in the Late Triassic and the evolutionary process of genus Mockina to Parvigondolella, in particular between Mockina bidentata and Parvigondolella andrusovi, is one of the most significant examples. Parvigondolella has been reported worldwide since it was first described in the early 1970s. However, it has recently been suggested that genus Parvigondolella is an ecostratigraphic morphotype of genus Mockina, and thus a phenotype controlled by the environmental conditions, and not an independent taxon. In the Pizzo Mondello Section (Sicily, Italy), transitional forms between M. bidentata and P. andrusovi have been found at different evolutionary stages. We have investigated the oceanic conditions at the time by using redox-sensitive elements (Mn, Fe, V, Cr, and Ni) and seawater temperatures from biogenetic δ18Ophos to understand the possible environmental influences on the phylogenetic evolution between Mockina and Parvigondolella. The geochemical and isotope analyses indicate that the redox condition and temperature were stable during the evolution of genus Parvigondolella in Pizzo Mondello, confirming that genus Parvigondolella is a real taxon and not a phenotype. A new conodont species named Parvigondolella ciarapicae n. sp. is described here for the first time.
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