Raman spectroscopy for fluid, melt, and mineral inclusions provides direct insight into the physicochemical conditions of the environment surrounding the host mineral at the time of trapping. However, the obtained Raman spectral characteristics such as peak position are modified because of local temperature enhancement of the inclusions by the excitation laser, which might engender systematic errors and incorrect conclusions if the effect is not corrected. Despite the potentially non-negligible effects of laser heating, the laser heating coefficient (B) (°C/mW) of inclusions has remained unsolved. For this study, we found B from experiments and heat transport simulation to evaluate how various parameters such as experimental conditions, mineral properties, and inclusion geometry affect B of inclusions. To assess the parameters influencing laser heating, we measured B of a total of 19 CO2-rich fluid inclusions hosted in olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, and quartz. Our results revealed that the measured B of fluid inclusions in spinel is highest (approx. 6 °C/mW) and that of quartz is lowest (approx. 1 × 10−2 °C/mW), consistent with earlier inferences. Our simulation results show that the absorption coefficient of the host mineral is correlated linearly with B. It is the most influential parameter when the absorption coefficient of the host mineral (αh) is larger than that of an inclusion (αinc). Furthermore, although our results indicate that both the inclusion size and depth have little effect on B if αh > αinc, the thickness and radius of the host mineral slightly influence B. These results suggest that the choice of inclusion size and depth to be analyzed in a given sample do not cause any systematic error in the Raman data because of laser heating, but the host radius and thickness, which can be adjusted to some degree at the time of sample preparation, can cause systematic errors between samples. Our results demonstrate that, even with laser power of 10 mW, which is typical for inclusion analysis, the inclusion temperature rises to tens or hundreds of degrees during the analysis, depending especially on the host mineral geometry and optical properties. Therefore, correction of the heating effects will be necessary to obtain reliable data from Raman spectroscopic analysis of inclusions. This paper presents some correction methods for non-negligible effects of laser heating.
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