Purpose: This study examined the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed cell death-ligand 2 (PD-L2), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) in tumor cells and cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma according to histological subtypes. Methods: We evaluated PD-L1, PD-L2, and IDO1 expression in tumor cells and CD8-positive TILs in surgically resected specimens from 196 stage 0 or I lung adenocarcinoma patients by immunohistochemical staining. We also examined the relationships between the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and IDO1 in tumor cells and the density of CD8-positive TILs and clinical factors. Patients were divided into three groups: A, adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (N = 32); B, lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma (IAD; LPA; N = 66); and C, IAD except for LPA (N = 98). Results: PD-L1 was expressed only in Group C, but not in Groups A or B. The positive ratio of PD-L2 was significantly higher in Group C (63.3%), and that of IDO1 was also significantly higher in Group C (65.3%). The density of CD8-positive TILs was significantly higher in Group C (45 ± 2.4). There was no significant difference between the positive ratios of PD-L2 and IDO1 and the density of CD8-positive TILs in Group A (50.0%, 21.9%, and 36 ± 4.1, respectively) or Group B (60.6%, 25.8%, and 44 ± 3.0, respectively). Conclusions: No cases in Groups A and B expressed PD-L1. The expression of immune-related factors, especially PD-L1 and IDO1, was significantly associated with Group C. This is the first report of the detailed examination of PD-L1, PD-L2, IDO1, and CD8 expression in lung adenocarcinoma subtypes with lepidic predominant components. Our results could help identify patients who would benefit from perioperative immunotherapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research