Background: Recently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) procedures have been gradually established; nonetheless, some adverse events (AEs) have been reported. Dilation procedures using a non-cautery or cautery device increase the incidence of AEs in EUS-HGS. Aims: We evaluated EUS-HGS procedures without dilation and the factors associated with dilation. Methods: We enrolled 79 patients who underwent EUS-HGS between July 2015 and March 2021 at two centers, 72 of whom had technical success (72/79, 91%). During the EUS-HGS procedures, we defined patients without dilation procedures as the dilation (−) group. We divided the patients into two groups: the dilation (+) (35 patients) and dilation (−) (37 patients) groups. We performed a propensity score matching analysis to adjust for confounding bias between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with dilation. Results: There was no difference in clinical success rate between the dilation (+) and dilation (−) groups (91% vs. 95%, P = 0.545). The AE rate (P = 0.013) and long procedure time (P = 0.017) were significantly higher in the dilation (+) group than in the dilation (−) group before and after propensity score matching. Factors associated with dilation were plastic stent placement (odds ratio [OR], 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–28.7; P = 0.007) and puncture angle of ≤ 90° (OR, 44.6; 95% CI, 5.1–390; P < 0.001). Conclusions: A dilation procedure in EUS-HGS may not always be necessary. However, patients with an angle of ≤ 90° between the needle and intrahepatic biliary tract or plastic stent deployment require dilation procedures.
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