Objective: The long-term outcomes of cognitive function in moyamoya disease remain unknown. We aimed to assess 5-year changes in cognitive function in adult moyamoya disease patients and to evaluate the value of the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) steno-occlusive score to predict cognitive changes. Methods: Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients whose cognitive functions had been evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat) at baseline and reassessed 5 years later. Results: The total FAB score and total Cognistat score were lower after 5 years in 9 patients each. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that subscores for conceptualization and comprehension increased, while subscores for mental flexibility, programming, and inhibitory control significantly decreased after 5 years. The right MRA total score and right posterior cerebral artery score were negatively associated with 5-year changes in the total FAB score and total Cognistat score. The right posterior cerebral artery score was significantly associated with changes in subscores for mental flexibility, programming, sensitivity to interference, and construction. Conclusions: Specific cognitive domains can decline over time in patients with adult moyamoya disease. MRA findings might be useful for predicting future declines in cognitive function.
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