Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) has been shown previously to be an essential component of self-setting calcium phosphate cements that form hydroxyapatite (HA) as the only end-product. We report herein on a new self-setting calcium phosphate cement that does not contain TTCP. These cements consist of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), α-tricalcium phosphate, or amorphous calcium phosphate and, as an additional source of calcium, calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. These cements require the use of a phosphate (0.2 mol l-1 or higher) solution or a high pH solution as the cement liquid. The cements harden in relatively short time (5-30 min) and form HA as the dominant end-product in 24 h. The diametral tensile strengths of the 24-h samples are in the range of 0.2 to 7.5 MPa. Results from X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the cement setting is caused by rapid HA formation induced by the high phosphate concentration of the cement liquid. Because DCPA and DCPD are highly soluble at pH values above 12.7, which is the pK3 of phosphoric acid, high phosphate concentration in the slurry solution was also attainable by using a highly alkaline solution as the cement liquid. The physicochemical properties of these cements are comparable to those of TTCP-containing cements, and the new cements may be expected to have in vivo characteristics similar to those of TTCP-containing cements as well.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Mechanics of Materials