Background/aim: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft-tissue tumor, and its diagnosis is usually made histopathologically. The effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has not been established. We elucidated prognostic factors, diagnostic markers, and therapeutic targets. Materials and Methods: Cases of MPNST were studied using next-generation sequencing. A total of 24 tumor samples, 11 from von Recklinghausen’s disease-associated MPNST (vRH-MPNST), 11 from sporadic non-vRH MPNST, and two neurofibroma (NF) cases were retrieved, on which next-generation sequencing and survival analysis were performed. Results: We identified NF1 gene mutations, including three mutations in two NFs, and 10 mutations in eight MPNSTs (five vRHMPNSTs and three sporadic MPNSTs). Meningioma 1 (MN1) gene alteration was detected in six cases of vRH-MPNST. It is considered that MN1 gene alteration is related to the tumorigenesis of vRH-MPNST. Conclusion: MN1 gene mutation was detected in more than half of our cases, it may have potential for use as a therapeutic target in vRH-MPNST.
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