General rules for recording endoscopic findings of esophageal varices were initially proposed in 1980 and revised in 1991. These rules have widely been used in Japan and other countries. Recently, portal hypertensive gastropathy has been recognized as a distinct histological and functional entity. Endoscopic ultrasonography can clearly depict vascular structures around the esophageal wall in patients with portal hypertension. Owing to progress in medicine, we have updated and slightly modified the former rules. The revised rules are simpler and more straightforward than the former rules and include newly recognized findings of portal hypertensive gastropathy and a new classification for endoscopic ultrasonographic findings.
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