In 2013 and 2014, an extensive survey of bacterial wilt in Myanmar was performed, and 70 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) were collected from wilting plants of tomato, potato, chili and eggplant. Myanmar Rs strains were characterized by traditional and molecular methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using Rs-specific primer set amplified one specific band (281-bp) from template DNA of all strains. Pathogenicity tests on the four solanaceous plants differentiated the strains into six pathogenic groups. Biovar determination tests showed that biovar 3 strains predominated (63%) among all Rs strains. Biovar 4 strains (7%) were obtained from both tomato and chili strains, whereas biovar 2 (30%) strains were isolated only from potato. Multiplex-PCR analysis indicated that tomato, eggplant and chili strains belonged to phylotype I, whereas potato strains comprised phylotype I and phylotype II. Strains in phylotype I, which was suggested to have originated from Asia, were the most prevalent in all surveyed areas. Phylogenetic analysis based on the endoglucanase (egl) gene sequences revealed that Myanmar strains partitioned into two major clusters that corresponded to phylotype I and II. Strains in phylotype I were further divided into seven subclusters, each corresponding to a distinct sequevar (15, 17, 46, 47, 48, unknown 1 or unknown 2). All strains in phylotype II belonged to sequevar 1. This is the first comprehensive report of the presence of diverse Rs strains in Myanmar.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes