The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and creatinine (Cr) index are indexes often used as nutritional surrogates in patients receiving hemodialysis. However, few studies have directly compared the clinical characteristics of these two indexes. We investigated 3,536 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the Japan DOPPS phases 4 and 5. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the main exposures were the GNRI and Cr index. We confirmed and compared the association between these indexes and mortality risk as estimated by a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. During the median 2.2-year follow-up period, 414 patients died of any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted model, lower GNRI and Cr index were both associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, and these associations were further confirmed by restricted cubic spline curves. The predictability of all-cause mortality, as represented by the c-statistic, was comparable between the two indexes. Furthermore, baseline nutritional surrogates that corresponded with lower GNRI or Cr index values were comparable between the two indexes. Given that calculating the GNRI is simpler than calculating the Cr index, our data suggest that the GNRI may be preferable to the Cr index for predicting clinical outcomes in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
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