Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by infantile-onset intractable seizures and unfavorable prognosis of psychomotor development. To date, hundreds of genes have been linked to the onset of DEE. GNAO1 is a DEE-associated gene encoding the alpha-O1 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (GαO). Despite the increasing number of reported children with GNAO1 encephalopathy, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurodevelopmental phenotypes remain elusive. We herein present that co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses identified another DEE-associated protein, SPTAN1, as an interacting partner of GαO. Silencing of endogenous Gnao1 attenuated the neurite outgrowth and calcium-dependent signaling. Inactivation of GNAO1 in human-induced pluripotent stem cells gave rise to anomalous brain organoids that only weakly expressed SPTAN1 and Ankyrin-G. Furthermore, GNAO1-deficient organoids failed to conduct synchronized firing to adjacent neurons. These data indicate that GαO and other DEE-associated proteins organize the cytoskeletal remodeling and functional polarity of neurons in the developing brain.
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