Background: Gut microbiome colonization during early life is significant for immunological and physiological development. Maternal microbiome is associated with proper development of infants. The aim of this study was to determine the gut microbiome profiles among Thai healthy pregnant women and its associated factors. Methods: A multicenter, open trial prospective study was performed at three hospitals in Northern, Central, and Northeastern regions of Thailand. Thai healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited. Fecal samples of subjects at the third trimester of pregnancy were collected with sterilized techniques. The gut microbiome profiles and bacterial diversity were assessed using 16Ss RNA gene sequencing. Demographic data, dietary intake, and anthropometric data were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 86 healthy pregnant women. The dominant of gut microbiome profiles were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Pregnant women in the Central region had significantly higher of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae than those in other regions (p < 0.001). Pregnant women in the Northern region significantly consumed more glutinous rice than those in other regions (p < 0.001). Glutinous rice intake was positively correlated with Bacteroidetes (rho = 0.405, p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with Firmicutes (rho = − 0.440, p = 0.001). Alpha diversity was not correlated with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain. Conclusions: The gut microbiome profiles mainly found in Thai healthy pregnant women were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The gut microbiome profiles in pregnant women found in this study possibly depended on dietary patterns. Glutinous rice with high amylopectin is probably related to abundance of Bacteroidetes.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes