Climatic oscillation often have influenced the present distribution and intraspecific genetic diversity Oecophylla smaragdina through its wide range of geographical distribution. Previous phylogeographic study of Asian weaver ant population denotes the evidence of distribution of Indian types in Indian, Sri Lanka and SE Asian types in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. However, recent phylogenetic analysis reveals the overlapping distribution of the Indian and South East Asian clades of O. smaragdina in Bangladesh. The present study aims to identify the haplotypes and it's networking in Bangladesh based on extensive materials. Sampling was executed according to zonation of 5 areas, demarcated by 3 main rivers during the years 2013 to 2018. Adult O. smaragadina workers were collected from 71 colonies of 67 localities belonging to 47 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 25 haplotypes were identified in Bangladesh comprises 13 and 12 of Indian and SE Asian types, respectively from 93 sequences of Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 639 bp. The geographical distribution of this haplotype reveals that the Indian haplotypes are mostly located at the western part of Bangladesh while SE Asian haplotypes were dominated in the Eastern part of the country. Central part of Bangladesh has overlapped with the mixture of both Indian and SE Asian haplotypes. The results of the haplotype network give the evidence of recent expansion of O. smaragdina population in Bangladesh and clarify the evidence of presence of many missing haplotypes in refugee.
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