We have investigated transient behavior of RE-123 coated conductors in fault current limiting operation based on experimental hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS). Fault current limiting function of superconducting electric power application is attractive to maximize the potential of power system; such a function can be realized by the transition to the resistive state of superconducting wire. However, the phenomena is relatively complicated: nonlinear current transport properties varying with time-dependent temperature rise. Furthermore, from practical point of view, the influence of spatially homogeneity of cooling and local critical current properties in RE-123 coated conductors must be clarified for reliable operation. To demonstrate this, we developed HILS system using real-time digital simulator. Fault current limiting operation was successfully demonstrated for dc electric railway system. This method enabled us to evaluate the real-time responses of RE-123 coated conductors such as nonlinear properties and thermal behaviors under a power grid network. In particular, we applied RE-123 coated conductors with spatially inhomogeneous cooling and local critical currents to the experiment to understand the influences of them on the fault current limiting and recovery functions. Furthermore, such transient phenomena were successfully described by an electrically and thermally coupled analysis taking into account of temperature dependent nonlinear transport properties of the RE-123 coated conductors based on the percolation transition model. The method and findings will become crucial for effiective and reliable designs of superconducting fault current limiters.
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