Background. Cure rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for patients with active and inactive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may differ, but well-controlled studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate DAA outcomes in a large East Asian HCV/HCC population compared with HCV/non-HCC patients. Methods. Using data from the Real-World Evidence from the Asia Liver Consortium (REAL-C) registry (Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan), we used propensity score matching (PSM) to match HCC and non-HCC (1:1) groups for age, sex, cirrhosis, prior treatment, HCV genotype, treatment regimen, baseline platelet count, HCV RNA, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and albumin levels to evaluate DAA treatment outcomes in a large population of HCV/HCC compared with HCV/non-HCC patients. Results. We included 6081 patients (HCC, n = 465; non-HCC, n = 5 616) treated with interferon-free DAAs. PSM of the entire study population yielded 436 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall SVR rate of HCC (92.7%) and non-HCC (95.0%) groups. Rates of treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, and death were also similar between HCC and non-HCC groups. Among patients with HCC, those with active HCC had a lower SVR than inactive HCC cases (85.5% vs 93.7%; P =.03). On multivariable analysis, active HCC, but not inactive HCC, was significantly associated with lower SVR (OR, 0.28; P =.01) when compared with non-HCC. Conclusions. Active HCC but not inactive HCC was independently associated with lower SVR compared with non-HCC patients undergoing DAA therapy, although cure rate was still relatively high (85%) in active HCC patients.
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