Although it has been recognized that those who are positive for anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBcAb) and negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with normal liver function could be donors for living donor liver transplantation under appropriate prophylaxis, the negative impact of positive HBcAb on such donors themselves has not been reported. We present a case of a living donor with positive HBcAb, who donated his left lobe for his sister with unresectable giant hepatic hemangioma, and the donor himself developed a de novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 10 years after donation. He had been lost from the follow-up program since 1 year after donation. Imaging studies showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass compatible with HCC, which was 9 cm in size with portal invasion into the anterior portal vein of the remnant liver. Re-laparotomy for hepatectomy with the removal of the tumor thrombus in the anterior portal vein of the remnant liver was carried out, and he is free from recurrence 6 months after surgery on prophylactic sorafenib. At our institute, 58 (9.6%) donors among the 603 living donors were anti-HBcAb positive and anti-HBsAg negative, and we started regular HCC surveillance using sonogram every 6 months for these patients.
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