Progress in diagnostic modalities, surgical procedures, and multidisciplinary treatment for pancreatic diseases has increased the number of long-term survivors after pancreatic resection. Several reports have focused on high-risk lesions (HRLs), including high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and IPMN with an associated invasive carcinoma, in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The etiology of HRLs in the remnant pancreas is thought to be either isolated local recurrence of the initial lesion in the remnant pancreas or a newly developed primary lesion. Although it is difficult to distinguish between local recurrence and a new primary lesion, comparison of genetic alterations between two lesions may help with this distinction. Early detection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas may improve the prognosis of patients, and several investigators have proposed predictive factors for HRLs in the remnant pancreas after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN. The reported short- and long-term outcomes of surgical resection of HRLs in the remnant pancreas are relatively favorable. Life-long surveillance of the remnant pancreas is recommended after partial pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer or IPMN.
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