Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is the current gold standard of methylome analysis. Post-bisulfite adaptor tagging (PBAT) is an increasingly popular WGBS protocol because of high sensitivity and low bias. PBAT originally relied on two rounds of random priming for adaptor-tagging of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to attain high efficiency but at a cost of library insert length. To overcome this limitation, we developed terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-assisted adenylate connector-mediated ssDNA (TACS) ligation as an alternative to random priming. In this method, TdT attaches adenylates to the 3'-end of input ssDNA, which are then utilized by RNA ligase as an efficient connector to the ssDNA adaptor. A protocol that uses TACS ligation instead of the second random priming step substantially increased the lengths of PBAT library fragments. Moreover, we devised a dual-library strategy that splits the input DNA to prepare two libraries with reciprocal adaptor polarity, combining them prior to sequencing. This strategy ensured an ideal base-color balance to eliminate the need for DNA spike-in for color compensation, further improving the throughput and quality of WGBS. Adopting the above strategies to the HiSeq X Ten and NovaSeq 6000 platforms, we established a cost-effective, high-quality WGBS, which should accelerate various methylome analyses.
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