The histology of ovarian tumors exhibits a wide variety of histological features. The histological classification of ovarian tumors by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on histogenetic principles, and this classification categorizes ovarian tumors with regard to their derivation from coelomic surface epithelial cells, germ cells, and mesenchyme (the stroma and the sex cord). Epithelial ovarian tumors, which are the majority of malignant ovarian tumors, are further grouped into histological types as follows: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional cell tumors (Brenner tumors), carcinosarcoma, mixed epithelial tumor, undifferentiated carcinoma, and others. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas are highly associated with endometriosis. In stage distribution, serous carcinoma is found predominantly is stage III or IV. In contrast, clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas tend to remain confined to the ovary. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas may be unique histological types compared with serous carcinomas with respect to stage distribution and association with endometriosis.
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