HLA genotype-clinical phenotype correlations are not established for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). We studied HLA-DRB1/DPB1 genotype–phenotype correlations in 528 MS and 165 NMOSD cases using Japan MS/NMOSD Biobank materials. HLA-DRB1*04:05, DRB1*15:01 and DPB1*03:01 correlated with MS susceptibility and DRB1*01:01, DRB1*09:01, DRB1*13:02 and DPB1*04:01 were protective against MS. HLA-DRB1*15:01 was associated with increased optic neuritis and cerebellar involvement and worsened visual and pyramidal functional scale (FS) scores, resulting in higher progression index values. HLA-DRB1*04:05 was associated with younger onset age, high visual FS scores, and a high tendency to develop optic neuritis. HLA-DPB1*03:01 increased brainstem and cerebellar FS scores. By contrast, HLA-DRB1*01:01 decreased spinal cord involvement and sensory FS scores, HLA-DRB1*09:01 decreased annualized relapse rate, brainstem involvement and bowel and bladder FS scores, and HLA-DRB1*13:02 decreased spinal cord and brainstem involvement. In NMOSD, HLA-DRB1*08:02 and DPB1*05:01 were associated with susceptibility and DRB1*09:01 was protective. Multivariable analysis revealed old onset age, long disease duration, and many relapses as independent disability risks in both MS and NMOSD, and HLA-DRB1*15:01 as an independent risk only in MS. Therefore, both susceptibility and protective alleles can influence the clinical manifestations in MS, while such genotype–phenotype correlations are unclear in NMOSD.
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