Vertical nitrate fluxes associated with turbulent mixing and upwelling around a small reef in the Kuroshio are quantified by continuously deploying a turbulence microstructure profiler with an attached submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer while drifting from the upstream to the downstream of the reef. Flow separations and trains of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows (thickness = 60 m) are identified using a shipboard ADCP and an echo-sounder. The turbulence diffusivity associated with the vigorous turbulent mixing reaches up to O(10−1 m2 s−1), resulting in strong nitrate fluxes of O(1–103 mmol m−2 day−1). In addition, large differences between the upstream and downstream density profiles suggest a strong upwelling velocity of O(10−3 m s−1), as well as an upwelling nitrate flux of O(102 mmol m−2 day−1) in the entire subsurface layer.
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