In fifth-group element superconductors V, Nb, and Ta, the increase in superconducting transition temperature (Tc) was attempted by using both high-pressure torsion (HPT) and additional hydrostatic pressure (HP) compression. The former brings about the grain refinement and strain accumulation in the unit-cell level. The additional compression for severely strained superconductors triggers strengthening intergrain-contact and/or structural deformation in the unit-cell level. The manner of the appearance of the above two effects depends on the kind of elements: First, in V, there is no prominent effect of HPT, comparing to the hydrostatic compression effects on its non-strained material. Next, in Ta, the effect of strengthening intergrain-contact appears at small hydrostatic compression, resulting in temporal increase in Tc. Finally, Nb exhibits prominent increase in Tc by both effects and, in particular, the structural deformation in the unit-cell level promotes the increase in Tc. Thus, the accumulation of residual strain in the level of starting material can be a promising work to manipulate Tc under HP compression.
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