Hysteresis and fast timescales in transport relations of toroidal plasmas

K. Itoh, Sanae Itoh, K. Ida, S. Inagaki, Y. Kamada, K. Kamiya, J. Q. Dong, C. Hidalgo, T. Evans, W. H. Ko, H. Park, T. Tokuzawa, S. Kubo, T. Kobayashi, Y. Kosuga, Makoto Sasaki, G. S. Yun, S. D. Song, N. Kasuya, Y. NagashimaC. Moon, M. Yoshinuma, R. Makino, T. Tsujimura, H. Tsuchiya, U. Stroth

研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿学術誌査読

6 被引用数 (Scopus)


This article assesses current understanding of hysteresis in transport relations, and its impact on the field. The rapid changes of fluxes compared to slow changes of plasma parameters are overviewed for both core and edge plasmas. The modulation ECH experiment is explained, in which the heating power cycles on-and-off periodically, revealing hysteresis and fast changes in the gradientflux relation. The key finding is that hystereses were observed simultaneously in both the the gradientflux and gradientfluctuation relations. Hysteresis with rapid timescale exists in the channels of energy, electron and impurity densities, and plausibly in momentum. Advanced methods of data analysis are explained. Transport hysteresis can be studied by observing the higher harmonics of temperature perturbation δTm in heating modulation experiments. The hysteresis introduces the term δTm, which depends on the harmonic number m in an algebraic manner (not exponential decay). Next, the causes of hysteresis and its fast timescale are discussed. The nonlocal-in-space coupling works here, but does not suffice. One mechanism for the heating heats turbulence is that the external source S in phase space for heating has its fluctuation in turbulent plasma. This coupling can induce the direct input of heating power into fluctuations. The height of the jump in transport hysteresis is smaller for heavier hydrogen isotopes, and could be one of the origins of isotope effects on confinement. Finally, the impacts of transport hysteresis on the control system are assessed. Control systems must be designed so as to protect the system from sudden plasma loss.

ジャーナルNuclear Fusion
出版ステータス出版済み - 7月 28 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 核物理学および高エネルギー物理学
  • 凝縮系物理学


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