Pex5 and Pex7 are cytosolic receptors for peroxisome targeting signal type-1 (PTS1) and type-2 (PTS2), respectively, and play a pivotal role in import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. Recent advance in mass spectrometry analysis has facilitated comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interaction network by a combination with immunoprecipitation or biochemical purification. In this chapter, we introduce several findings obtained by these methods applied to mammalian cells. Exploring Pex5-binding partners in mammalian cells revealed core components comprising the import machinery complex of matrix proteins and a number of PTS1-type cargo proteins. Biochemical purification of the Pex5-export stimulating factor from rat liver cytosol fraction identified Awp1, providing further insight into molecular mechanisms of the export step of mono-ubiquitinated Pex5. Identification of DDB1 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1), a component of CRL4 (Cullin4A-RING ubiquitin ligase) E3 complex, as a Pex7-interacting protein revealed that quality control of Pex7 by CRL4A is important for PTS2 protein import by preventing the accumulation of dysfunctional Pex7. Furthermore, analysis of binding partners of an intraperoxisomal processing enzyme, trypsin-domain containing 1 (Tysnd1), showed a protein network regulating peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation.